By Richard Bellman

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1 in Rychlik [403] . 5. Suppose that there exist an > 0, bn ∈ R with 1 − F (bn) −→n→∞ 0 and (1 − F (bn+1 ))/(1 − F (bn )) −→n→∞ 1 such that for any s ≥ 0, 1− 1 − F (an s + bn ) −→n→∞ L(s) 1 − F (bn ) for some continuous df L. Then L is a GPD that is, there exist β ∈ R and some a > 0 such that L(s) = 1 + log(Gβ (as)), s ≥ 0. 5, then discrete limiting distributions promptly occur; consider for example the geometric df F (k) = 1 − (1 − p)k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . for some p ∈ (0, 1). 3. Applications 23 an = 1 and bn = n, n ∈ N the ratio (1 − F (an s + bn ))/(1 − F (bn )) then equals 1 − F (s), s ≥ 0, which is well known.

It is intuitively clear that V1 , V2 , . . are independent replicates of a random element V , whose range is the set A and whose distribution is the conditional distribution of Z given Z ∈ A: P (V ∈ B) = P (Z ∈ B | Z ∈ A) = P (Z ∈ B ∩ A) , P (Z ∈ A) B ∈ B. It is probably less intuitively clear but nevertheless true that K(n) and V1 , V2 , . . are independent. 1 in Reiss [387]. 16 1. 1. Let X1 , X2 , . . be independent copies of the random element V , independent also from KA (n). Then, Nn,A = εVi =D i≤KA (n) εXi .

Extreme Value Theory Proof. Part (i) follows from elementary computations. The proof of part (ii) requires a bit more eﬀort. From (i) we deduce the existence of a positive constant K such that, for q near zero with Wa,b (t) := Wi,α ((t − b)/a), F −1 (1 − q) = inf{t ≥ xq : q ≥ 1 − F (t)} = inf t ≥ xq : q ≥ 1 − F (t) (1 − Wa,b (t)) 1 − Wa,b (t) ≤ inf{t ≥ xq : q ≥ (1 + K · r(t))(1 − Wa,b (t))} ≥ inf{t ≥ xq : q ≥ (1 − K · r(t))(1 − Wa,b (t))}, where r(x) = x−αδ , |x − ω(F )|αδ , exp(−(δ/a)x) in case i = 1, 2, 3, and xq → ω(F ) as q → 0.