An Overview of Linguistic Structures in Torwali, a Language by Wayne A. Lunsford

By Wayne A. Lunsford

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Bear in mind that although [G] is an allophone of /g/, it is also an allophone of /G/ due to its distribution and contrast with [g] in the language. Similarly, /G/ undergoes the same kind of weakening intervocalically as /g/. A couple of examples are also included in (5). 5) /sigFl/ /tigel/ /bFGFl/ /cFGFRa/ [sigFl0] [tigEl0] [siGFl0] [tiGEl0] [bFGFl] [cFGFRa] [siFl0] [tiEl0] [bFFl] [cFFRa] ‘sand’ ‘word’ ‘ditch’ ‘crushed’ Still another illustration of this process is seen with /j/ occurring between vowels.

Its function is to block the fronting of the stem vowel which the feminine singular suffix -i causes in the feminine singular form. Without this blocking phoneme, the plural suffix would incorrectly cause the stem vowel to become fronted. 2 for discussion. 43 21) gal ‘weed’ galmal ‘weeds and such’ cey ‘tea’ ceymey ‘tea and such’ gel ‘bread’ gelmel ‘bread and such’ lon ‘salt’ lonmon ‘salt and such’ pela ‘cup’ pelamela ‘cups and such’ dFrwaz ‘door’ dFrwazmFrwaz ‘doors and such’ The second use of reduplication is to intensify the meaning of the original word.

D. e. f. g. h. /ga/ /nigalu/ /madum/ /mindFl/ /ba/ /bum/ /dErin/ /batH/ L L L L LH LH LH LH [gha] [nhi~ghalu] [mha~du~m0] [mI~ndhFl0] [bha] [bhu~m0] [dhErI~n0] [bhatH] ‘grass’ ‘to dig up’ ‘vulture’ ‘sheep (m)’ ‘brother’ ‘field’ ‘floor’ ‘cooked rice’ What is interesting about the words in (15b), (15c) and (15d) is that even though a low tone is applied to the whole word, not every vowel is breathy. In fact, the first syllable of /mindFl/ does not even have a breathy vowel. It is possible that voiced aspirated consonants were once very prominent in Torwali.

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