A Student Grammar of Spanish by Ron Batchelor

By Ron Batchelor

This concise creation to Spanish grammar, designed for English-speaking undergraduates, assumes no previous wisdom of grammatical terminology. It explains each one element of Spanish grammar and offers a number of attractive workouts to problem scholars. basically prepared into thirty devices, protecting diverse points of grammar, the booklet services as a vital reference consultant and a entire workbook. person themes should be appeared up through a common cross-referencing method, and concise definitions are supplied in an invaluable word list of grammatical phrases. The workouts are appropriate for either lecture room use and self-study.

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Is opposed to the suggestion). iv The definite article is required if the name of the country is qualified by an adjective or a phrase: el Asia rusa, el Asia Menor, el M´exico contempor´aneo, la fecunda Italia (fertile Italy), la Argentina de los a˜nos sesenta (( . . ) of the sixties) v Technically, each noun is preceded by the article but this usage is also slipping away, and not only in speech. When the nouns are closely associated with each other, this is especially true. e. when it explains a preceding noun): Veracruz, principal puerto en la costa oriental de M´exico Quito, capital de Ecuador, posee un clima delicioso Unamuno, autor de la Generaci´on del ’98 Veracruz, main city .

In this unit we shall deal with gender. There are no available rules for determining the masculine and feminine genders of Spanish nouns. The gender of most Spanish nouns have, unfortunately, to be learnt, just as learners of English have to learn how to spell individual words. It is true that there is usually a reason for the gender assigned, but the origin is frequently obscure or untraceable. Nevertheless, there are some general considerations of great help to the learner. What is certain is that retaining the gender of nouns will help to prevent cerebral decay.

E. when it explains a preceding noun): Veracruz, principal puerto en la costa oriental de M´exico Quito, capital de Ecuador, posee un clima delicioso Unamuno, autor de la Generaci´on del ’98 Veracruz, main city . . Quito, Ecuador’s capital, possesses . . Unamuno, author of . . g. el/la corista (chorister) / pianista (pianist), violinista (violinist). ” xviii However, complications are not far away as illustrated by the two following categories: a When the feminine form already has a distinct meaning: el f´ısico physicist la f´ısica physics el alcalde mayor la alcaldesa mayor’s wife el polic´ıa police officer la polic´ıa police (force) b When there was no feminine form in existence, and few females in the job: ministro (was masculine and feminine) and now ministra for feminine form presidente (was M and F) and now presidenta for feminine form c´onsul (el was used for both genders) but now la c´onsul agente (formerly el for both genders) but now la agente As women take on new roles in Western society, Spanish has, like French and Italian, had to find new feminines, and feminists are doing their best to establish new forms.

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